Electrical Stimulation History
Current is defined as the flow of electrical charge from one point to another. In the body, current is a low of ions, mainly Chloride (CL), Sodium (Na+), and Potassium (K+). During electrical stimulation, charge (ions) moves from one point to another. This transfer of charge (ions) causes physiologic changes to occur. In the case of the urinary system, the physiologic changes occur in the pelvic floor and bladder muscles.
Electrical stimulation has been used for centuries to treat a variety of clinical conditions. In this method, electrical signals typically generated either consciously or subconsciously by the brain to accomplish functional tasks such as hand and leg motion, digestion and urination. When the human body is unable to produce and / or deliver electrical stimuli to a specific organ / limb, artificial stimulation can be generated and applied producing similar results. The principal idea of using artificially created electrical stimulation to improve bladder function is based on the fact that our body generates electrical stimuli that control bladder muscles. The bladder mechanism can be controlled with artificial electrical stimulation programs. Bladder stimulation has been a clinical research topic for more than a century. Researchers around the world have conducted multiple experimentation protocols for different conditions. Excellent results have been documented in various countries including treatment of normal bladder aging and other more serious conditions such as dysfunctional bladders in Paraplegic or Quadriplegic patients. This form of stimulation is termed IntraVesical Electrical Stimulation (IVES).
Chronology of Electrical Stimulation:
As early as the Eighteenth Century, European Scientists had investigated the effects of electricity on the human body.
Specifically, correlation of muscle contractions with electrical impulses was investigated by Luigi Galvani in 1791 and Alessandro Volta in 1800.
In 1878, M. H. Saxtorph utilized what is recorded as the first Intravesical Catheter (Transurethral) with a suprapubic electrode to treat patients with Urinary Incontinence.
Basic technological developments during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries provided a basis for improved tools and a better understanding of the human body relative to functional electrical stimulation.
Many stimulation devices were developed in the last six decades. These devices included various principles of operation and different stimulation parameters. They were used to stimulate different parts of the urinary system including: directly onto the Pelvic Floor and the Detrusor, as well as indirectly through the nervous system.
- Multiple Pelvic Floor electrical stimulation devices have been developed in the last 50 years that can be used to train the muscles similarly to the effects of Kegel exercises.
- In 1983, McGuire reported on transcutaneous stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve. This technique, based on traditional acupuncture, focused on inhibition of bladder activity.
- In the 1980â€™s electrical stimulation was used to control Functional Motor functions in patients with Spinal Cord Injuries through implantable multichannel stimulation devices.
- In the 1990â€™s surgically implantable electrical stimulation for bladder control through the sacral nerve were made available.
Controlled scientific studies have been conducted around the worlds that demonstrate the safety and efficacy of IntraVesical ElectroStimulation (IVES) as a means to treat Urinary Incontinence as well as other deficiencies of the urinary system and other nerve lesions.
Innovamed developed detrusan 500 and worked with clinicians in leading institutions in Europe during the last two decades to research and optimize stimulation parameters for the application of IVES.
EMED acquired Innovamed in September of 2008 and has since refined its proprietary IntraVesical ElectroStimulation delivery device detrusetÂ®.